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Bentz, Christian. (2018). Adaptive Languages: An Information-Theoretic Account of Linguistic Diversity. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. Electronic version available:

Best, Karl-Heinz & Rottmann, Otto (2017). Quantitative Linguistics, an Invitation. Studies in quantitative linguistics 25. RAM-Verlag (extended edition of “Quantitative Linguistik. Eine Annäherung”, 3rd edition; Göttingen: Peust & Gut­­schmidt Verlag 2006). Hard copy available:

Debowski, Lukasz (2021). Information Theory Meets Power Laws: Stochastic Processes and Language Models. Wiley.

Herdan, Gustav (1962). The calculus of linguistic observations. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton. Electronic version available:

Levshina, Natalia (2023). Communicative efficiency: Language structure and use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tanaka-Ishii, Kumiko (2021). Statistical Universals of Language: Mathematical Chance vs. Human Choice, Springer International Publishing AG. Digital copy available from ProQuest Ebook Central,

Zipf, George K. (1949). Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Addison-Wesley Press.